Church and Sacraments: Contemporary Understanding – A Practical Study

Church and Sacraments: Contemporary Understanding – A Practical Study

Nelson MCBS

Table of Contents

Table of Contents. 1

Abbreviations. 1

Part 1. 2

Church and Sacraments: Contemporary Understanding. 2

1.0 Introduction. 2

1.1 Contemporary Problems of Sacramental Life. 2

1.1.1 Over-Emphasis on Popular Devotions. 2

1.1.2 Ignorance of the People. 3

1.1.3 Carelessness of the Pastors. 3

1.1.4 Problem of Improper Communication Medias. 3

1.1.5 Increase in the Number of Sects. 3

1.1.6 Lack of Models in the Church. 4

1.2 Contemporary Trends in Sacramental Theology. 4

1.2.1 Sacraments as Official Acts of the Church. 4

1.2.2 Return to the Patristic Understanding. 5

1.2.3 Promoting Active Participation. 5

1.2.4 Sacraments as Signs of the Church. 6

1.2.5 Church as the Continuation of Jesus Christ, the Sacrament 7

1.2.6 Priests as the Ministers of the Sacraments. 7

1.3 Conclusion. 8

Part 2. 9

The Interview.. 9

1. Questions Asked. 9

2. Participants’ Data. 9

3. Evaluation of the Interview.. 10

3.0 Introduction. 10

3.1 On Sacraments of Initiation. 10

3.2 On Sacraments of Healing. 11

3.3 On Sacraments of Communion. 11

3.4 On Popular Devotions. 11

3.5 On Active Participation. 12

3.6 On Ministers of the Sacraments. 12

3.7 On Other Religions. 13

4. Synopsis. 13

5. Conclusion. 13

Bibliography. 14


CCC                –Catechism of the Catholic Church

CCEO             -Code of Canons of the Eastern Orientals

LG                   –Lumen Gentium

SC                   -Sacrosanctum Consilium

Vat. II             -Second Vatican Council

Part 1

Church and Sacraments: Contemporary Understanding

1.0 Introduction

Sacramental theology is a much discussed theme in the present world especially among the theologians and even among the laity. One of the reasons which the Sacramental theology became a matter of discussion is that the popular devotions in the Church develop very fast and it and it creates deep rooted effects among the ordinary people. Therefore they have got a tendency to replace Sacramental celebrations with popular devotions. Any way the Catholic Church has got a clear idea about the real nature of the Sacraments and its development in the Church. The Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1131 teaches: “The Sacraments are efficacious signs of grace, instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, by which divine life is dispensed to us. The visible rites by which the Sacraments are celebrated signify and make present the graces proper to each Sacrament. They bear fruit in those who receive them with the required dispositions.”

1.1 Contemporary Problems of Sacramental Life

In order to have clear idea of the contemporary trends in Sacramental theology one should have basically the idea that how Sacramental life of the people are going on. Ofcourse there is no doubt that the people of today like to have religious life. They do have a thirst for God. They seek for spiritual food. But most often they are unable to choose between the real and fake. The major problems of Sacramental life could be understood from the following heads:

1.1.1 Over-Emphasis on Popular Devotions

Popular devotions are very much essential to the people and they help them to grow spiritually. People are interested in popular devotional practices such as Rosaries, Novenas, Way of the Cross, Veneration of Relics, Pilgrimages, etc. Catholic Church always encourages such devotional practices. But the problem is that the people do have a tendency to replace it with the Sacraments of the Church. Actually what the devotional practices should serve as a stepping stone to grow faithfully in the Sacramental life of the Church. When otherwise considered it goes wrong. When devotion becomes a matter of emotional satisfaction alone, the faith becomes meaningless. Faith is not a meaningless practice of our personal devotion but is an act of Holy Spirit at a particular place, time and community. [1]

1.1.2 Ignorance of the People

People are ignorant about the true meaning for the Sacrament. They wanted to know more about Jesus and His Church and they seek for it too. But often the source they depend up on is wrong. They are not careful enough in searching for the true knowledge but go after mere satisfaction of their senses. Knowledge of God must be attained through a continuous search for the truth. That which provides us temporal satisfaction cannot be considered as the real knowledge and the blessing of the God. Search for truth is continuous task and it is the work of the Holy Spirit in accordance with our cooperation.[2]

1.1.3 Carelessness of the Pastors

The pastors must have taken special care in the spiritual and material well being of the souls entrusted to them. But most often our Pastors fail to feed their sheep. Having taken interest in so many other activities priests often forgets the primary duty, which is feeding the shepherds. Church has always the intention of Jesus in treating the people of God; and pastors must imbibe the attitude of Jesus seeking the one by leaving the twelve. Those who search for God and God experience shall not be denied it or in other way they do not loose the occasion of knowing Christ because of the carelessness of the minister of Christ. [3]

1.1.4 Problem of Improper Communication Medias

The field of communication is growing very fast. There are new techniques developments in the area of communication and knowledge. The children and especially the youth of today are more open and exposed to media. In this context the pastors have the duty to educate them through using all these proper Medias. The old ways of communication may feel boring to the youth of today who are in the cyber world and the world of visuals. Therefore it is the duty of the priests to update themselves to the present situations as it was done from the part of church through the great Vatican II.

1.1.5 Increase in the Number of Sects

Sects are increasing day by day. In this context proper and timely shepherding of the people become very relevant and at the same time necessary for  the perseverance of the genuine teaching of the Church and there by the message of Jesus himself. The modern sects are often interested in gathering people through their attractive presentation of Christ and his message. They imitate the Sacramental celebrations of the church in such way that people feel a kind of attachment to it. They may not be true in their presentations; but the people go after them only because they make it attractive. The church therefore has the duty to proclaim the true message of Jesus in an attractive way both by our Sacramental presentation of it and in our external proclamations.

1.1.6 Lack of Models in the Church

Church lacks genuine models. People are in search of persons who are moving in Spirit. But often they are discouraged because of the lack of such genuine models. Priests do have a responsibility in bringing back people to real Christian life by way of their examples in life. They should celebrate the Sacrament of the Church with such a zeal that the people might feel that the priest who celebrate the Sacrament for them really encounter Christ. This would be an example an inspiration to the whole community to participate in the Sacrament more meaningfully.[4]

1.2 Contemporary Trends in Sacramental Theology

There is an absolute change in the understanding of the Sacraments today. There is a shift of emphasis from the cultic aspect of the Sacrament to a mystic aspect of the Sacraments. This paradigm shift of understanding may help the people to understand Sacraments as the highways to their journey towards the Eschatological Kingdom.

1.2.1 Sacraments as Official Acts of the Church

People have the doubt why they should participate in the Sacraments and whether they could compensate with something else. It was Karl Rahner who gave a solution to this problem properly. According to him we participate in the Sacramental celebrations of the church not get grace or something else, but because they are the official acts of the church.[5] The Catechism of the Catholic Church also gives answer to this problem. “The fruit of Sacramental life is both personal and ecclesial. For every one of the faithful on the one hand, this fruit is life for God in Christ Jesus; for the Church, on the other, it is an increase in charity and in her mission of witness.” (CCC No.1134). Fathers of second Vatican Council Says,

“Nevertheless the liturgy is the summit toward which the activity of the Church is directed; it is also the fount from which all her power flows. For the goal of apostolic endeavor is that all who are made sons of God by faith and Baptism should come together to praise God in the midst of his Church, to take part in the Sacrifice and to eat the Lord’s Supper. The liturgy, in its turn, moves the faithful filled with “the paschal Sacraments” to be “one in holiness”; it prays that “they hold fast in their lives to what they have grasped by their faith.” The renewal in the Eucharist of the covenant between the Lord and man draws the faithful and sets them aflame with Christ’s insistent love. From the liturgy therefore, and especially from the Eucharist, grace is poured forth upon us as from a fountain, and the sanctification of men in Christ and the glorification of God to which all other activities of the Church are directed, as toward their end, are achieved with maximum effectiveness. (SC No. 10)

1.2.2 Return to the Patristic Understanding

There is tendency today to return to the patristic understanding of the Sacraments. Fathers considered Sacraments as mysteries. According to the Fathers Sacraments are the mysteries revealed to the Church through different manifestations of God either through his saints or through the magisterial body of the Church. The real meaning of the mysteries is known to God alone and He manifests it according to the way he likes. It is foolishness that if one attempt to explain mysteries of God in human terms. [6]

1.2.3 Promoting Active Participation

Sacraments are official actions of the Church. Therefore they are to be celebrated in a community where maximum of its members are present. Private celebrations and personal interests in Sacramental action are discouraged by the Church. The council Fathers had a clear vision about the participation in the Sacraments.

“With zeal and patience pastors of souls must promote the liturgical instruction of the faithful and also their active participation, both internal and external, taking into account their age, condition, way of life and standard of religious culture. By so doing pastors will be fulfilling one of the chief duties of a faithful dispenser of the mysteries of God, and in this matter they must lead their flock not only by word by also by example.”  (SC No. 19).

Participation does not mean only presence but also action accordingly. It is not reciting prayers loudly and standing with devotion and attention alone. Active participation must change our hearts and it also makes us able to participate in the day to day life of our fellow brethren. The participants must understand the true meaning of the Sacrament and must be able to incorporate its spirit to the Christian life.[7]

1.2.4 Sacraments as Signs of the Church

Another modern approach in theology is the doctrine of the Church as the basic Sacrament of the salvation of the world. For the moment we are not concerned with the relationship in terms of connection, distinction, and subordination in which the Church as basic Sacrament stands to Christ as the historical arch-Sacrament in whom God’s self-utterance as forgiveness and divinization comes to its historical manifestation and its irrevocable fullness, It is in any case an explicit word of the Second Vatican Council, which itself in turn is connected with the patristic theology with its more comprehensive concept of the mysterion and Sacramentum, the ‘Sacrament of unity,’ the ‘Sacrament, i.e. sign and instrument of intimate union with God and of the unity of all mankind’ (LG No. 1). The Second Vatican Council never developed in any truly systematic or explicit way the concept of the Sacrament of the salvation of the world which is the Church. For this reason it is not very easy to say what precisely is being expressed by this term in the mind of the Council. At best we will have to take as our starting-point the fact that ultimately speaking it is in virtue of her entire reality, and so above all through those factors which belong to her very nature as determinative and constitutive, that the Church constitutes this basic Sacrament, and at the same time we shall have to apply to the Church precisely those basic properties which are familiar to us from the official and established theology of the individual Sacraments. This latter approach is justifiable if only because the Church is in fact intended to be the Sacrament of the salvation of the world and of the unity of mankind as a unity in God which brings about salvation – in other words between the Church on the one hand and salvation and unity on the other a distinction is drawn and at the same time a connection is established which is characterized as ‘Sacramental,’ signifying that in the concrete it can consist only in the fact that the Church is the sign in history which brings to manifestation at the historical level, and thereby also ‘effects,’ that will of God towards the world which creates salvation and unity.[8] “A Sacramental celebration is woven from signs and symbols. In keeping with the divine pedagogy of salvation, their meaning is rooted in the work of creation and in human culture, specified by the events of the Old Covenant and fully revealed in the person and work of Christ.” (CCC No. 1145)

1.2.5 Church as the Continuation of Jesus Christ, the Sacrament

Contemporary theology considers Jesus Christ as the primordial Sacrament and Church as the continuation of what has been initiated in Jesus Christ. The role of the Church is to be fulfilled in space and time. Therefore she has to present it in such way that people shall be able to experience it with their day to day life. Sacraments must be visible and concrete reality. It must be served as the good news to the people who are suffering and are in distress. As people of God Church is the witnessing community witnessing to God’s salvific deeds in Jesus Christ. The council Fathers says,

“Nevertheless the liturgy is the summit toward which the activity of the Church is directed; it is also the fount from which all her power flows. For the goal of apostolic endeavor is that all who are made sons of God by faith and Baptism should come together to praise God in the midst of his Church, to take part in the Sacrifice and to eat the Lord’s Supper. The liturgy, in its turn, moves the faithful filled with “the paschal Sacraments” to be “one in holiness”; it prays that “they hold fast in their lives to what they have grasped by their faith.” The renewal in the Eucharist of the covenant between the Lord and man draws the faithful and sets them aflame with Christ’s insistent love. From the liturgy therefore, and especially from the Eucharist, grace is poured forth upon us as from a fountain, and the sanctification of men in Christ and the glorification of God to which all other activities of the Church are directed, as toward their end, are achieved with maximum effectiveness. (SC No. 10)

1.2.6 Priests as the Ministers of the Sacraments

The priests are the ministers of the Sacrament of Christ. It is not they themselves offer the Sacraments for the people but God works through them.[9] In order to express this attitude of the church the Orientals use the passive formula in all the liturgical texts. The church also teaches it clearly through its catechism text:

“The ordained ministry or ministerial priesthood is at the service of the Baptismal priesthood. The ordained priesthood guarantees that it really is Christ who acts in the Sacraments through the Holy Spirit for the Church. The saving mission entrusted by the Father to his incarnate Son was committed to the apostles and through them to their successors: they receive the Spirit of Jesus to act in his name and in his person. The ordained minister is the Sacramental bond that ties the liturgical action to what the apostles said and did and, through them, to the words and actions of Christ, the source and foundation of the Sacraments.”  (CCC No. 1121).

Second Vatican council clearly says the role of the ministerial priesthood in the church,

Christ the Lord, high priest taken from among men (cf. Heb. 5: 1-5), made the new people “a kingdom of priests to God, his Father” (Apoc. 1:6; cf. 5:9-10). The baptized, by regeneration and the anointing of the Holy Spirit, are consecrated to be a spiritual house and a holy priesthood, that through all the works of Christian men they may offer spiritual sacrifices and proclaim the perfection of him who has called them out of darkness into his marvelous light (cf. 1 Pet. 2:4-10). Therefore all the Disciples of Christ, persevering in prayer and praising God (cf. Acts 2:42-47), should present themselves as a sacrifice, living, holy and pleasing to God (cf. Rom. 12:1). They should everywhere on earth bear witness to Christ and give an answer to everyone who asks a reason for the hope of an eternal life which is theirs. (cf. 1 Pet. 3:15). (LG No. 10)

1.3 Conclusion

Sacramental theology could be understood only in relation with the church and necessarily in relation with Jesus Christ, the primordial Sacrament. It is the celebration of the paschal mysteries by the community in signs and symbols. “Liturgy is an “action” of the whole Christ (Christus totus). Those who even now celebrate it without signs are already in the heavenly liturgy, where celebration is wholly communion and feast” (CCC No. 1136). The church teaches further,

It is the whole community, the Body of Christ united with its Head, that celebrates. “Liturgical services are not private functions but are celebrations of the Church which is ‘the Sacrament of unity,’ namely, the holy people united and organized under the authority of the bishops. Therefore, liturgical services pertain to the whole Body of the Church. They manifest it, and have effects upon it. But they touch individual members of the Church in different ways, depending on their orders, their role in the liturgical services, and their actual participation in them.” For this reason, “rites which are meant to be celebrated in common, with the faithful present and actively participating, should as far as possible be celebrated in that way rather than by an individual and quasi-privately.” (CCC No. 1140).

Sacraments are thus the official acts of the church. We participate in it not to gather grace but to express our communion with the church as Christians being united in Christ through his church. Through the Sacraments we participate in the mysteries of Christ the primordial Sacrament and there by become part of the salvific event.

Part 2

The Interview

1. Questions Asked

1. What do you feel when you participate in the Holy Mass?

2. Which mass you prefer to participate in: Latin or Syro-Malabar? Why?

3. What do you understand by Sacraments? Which Sacrament made you happy more when you received it?

4. Do you have a practice of personal prayer in your life other than common prayers?

5. What do you prefer: personal prayer or community prayer?

6. What is your experience with confession? Why do you make confessions?

7. There are people who are interested only to participate in Novenas? What is your opinion about them?

8.  How do you prefer to baptize your child: alone or with many other children?

9. Do you feel proud to be a Christian with Eucharist and other Sacraments?

10. What do you like most in the Eucharistic celebration, and the least?

11. When the Sacraments are celebrated do you feel that Christ himself is the minister of it?

12. Do you understand the signs and symbols used in the Sacramental celebrations?

13. Do you have particular intentions when you go for the Eucharistic celebrations?  Which are the ones most used to have?

14. Non-Catholic religions often do not accept 7 Sacraments. What do you feel about this?

15. Are you informed about the recent developments in the understanding of the Sacraments?

16. What is the difference between Sacraments and Sacramentals or devotional activities?

17. What is your opinion about the huge festal elements in parish feast celebrations?

18. While participating in the Sacraments, do you feel that you are not given the expected graces?

19. Which part do you consider as the most important part of the Eucharistic celebration?

20. How do the People of other religions consider our Sacraments?

2. Participants’ Data

Category Age Group Number Response
Household Men 25-40 3 Good
Household Women 25-40 3 Best
Men 40-60 2 Best
Sisters 30-40 2 Rather Good
Women 40-60 2 Very Good
Youth (Girls) 15-25 4 Good
Youth 1 (Boys) 15-20 4 Good
Youth 2 (Boys) 20-25 4 Very Good

Total Participants      – 24

3. Evaluation of the Interview

3.0 Introduction

It was a wonderful experience for me to have an interview withal these people in different ways and styles. I have chosen people mainly from the parish of Njrackal, Ernakulam. I have asked the questions to a few indirectly and to others introducing that I am going to have an interview with them as a part of my study. Both groups responded well. I am satisfied with the persons I interviewed in the sense that their cooperated me well and I am very much dissatisfied with the result I have collected from them. People are quiet ignorant about the basic principles of the church and at the same time they have got a curiosity to know the things. And as far I understand they are not fed well by the ministers.

3.1 On Sacraments of Initiation

The general idea of the people on the Sacrament of initiation is richer than any other Sacraments. They are almost aware of the Sacrament of Baptism and Eucharist. Meaning of confirmation is not that known to them. The idea they have in general is that of Pre-Vatican. Almost all of them I met believe that Baptism is the Sacrament of Christianizing and a remedy for the Original sin. 60% of them do not like Baptism celebrating in common. And 40% of them said they like to have Baptisms in common. I have also noticed an attitudinal change in the 60% when I talk to them of meaning of a communal Baptism.

Regarding Eucharist people are well aware of the presence of Jesus in the Sacrament. They are almost convinced that Jesus himself stands in the place of priest. But they are almost ignorant about the signs and symbols used in the Eucharistic celebration. Youth like mostly the Latin Mass the reason they say is that it is sweet and short. Sisters and all other groups like Syro-Malabar Mass. 40% of people do have intentions in participating in the holy mass. And these ones come under the female group.

Their knowledge about the Sacrament of reconciliation is nothing but it gives them Holy Spirit and they like to receive it from a bishop. Some of them received it from a bishop. And they think that this Sacrament is very much precious and sacred.

3.2 On Sacraments of Healing

100% of the people underwent the interview admire the Sacrament of confession in the Catholic Church.  But they have differences of opinion about the priests to whom they confess. They have personal preference of priests in hearing their confession. Youth group 1& 2 prefer young priest for confession. They don’t like old way of advising and giving longer penance. But the female groups wanted a holy priest who can give them adequate advice too.

The general idea of the people regarding the Sacrament of the sick is that of as an ‘Extreme unction’. 70% believe that it should e given only once ad has to be offered before death as a preparation to it. They generally don’t think that they will be healed by receiving this Sacrament.

3.3 On Sacraments of Communion

50% of the people do not realize the Sacramentality of Christian marriage. It is being done in the church to get a merely a blessing of the priest. One youth and a married one asked me why the church does not permit divorce. And they say it is their right to get divorced. Most of the married people are not satisfied with the preparatory course for the marriage. They say that they did not like to participate it then, but now thinks that it would be better if it had lasted for a week and could have attended little more seriously. Anyway they recommend some ongoing programs for the Christians in marriage life. But the youth in general has got a tendency to make their marriage an event with their friends. They don’t want to reduce any celebrative aspect of it.

With regard to the Holy Order they consider it as higher vocation and a special call. They have high expectation of the priests and wanted to get the service of the priest as much as possible. They wanted to have ordinations in their parishes itself. All of them whom I interviewed had participated at least once in an Ordination.

3.4 On Popular Devotions

People do not know really the distinction between popular devotions and Sacraments. Only 10% answered the difference to an extent. They like to participate in the popular devotions. One lady asked me ‘if Mother Mary or a saint can give me a blessing why should I hesitate to get it.’ People are going for devotional practices out of their needs in their life. They demand blessings to a saint and continue to ask for it. They are not bothered about the internal grace or the personal purification. Another Lady told me that she goes for the Sunday mass only because the church has a law. Otherwise she has to present it on the confessional too. But she likes to go for Novena, Retreats etc. ad she certifies that she got many external blessings when began to go for a Novena at a particular church and advised me to go there. 90% of the people have got the practice of reciting the rosary and the rest lack it; not because they don’t like it but because they don’t get time. They like to celebrate the Parish feast more splendidly. 80% present like the celebrative elements in the feasts and all. 20% say that some of the elements like fireworks, bands, decorations, etc. could be reduced to an extent. They also like solemn masses on feasts.

3.5 On Active Participation

People understand by the active participation is simply reciting the prayers loudly and attending every part of the Sacramental celebration devotedly.  And in order to have an active participation they recommend church music. They also wanted that the priest too recite the prayers in such way that it would evoke in them a kind of feeling piety and devotion. They actively participate in the popular devotions because they are short and priest gives occasional commentaries so that they can keep attentive again and again. Only 30% of people have a thirst and genuine intention in participating in the Holy Mass. For others, it is only part of a custom and they obey it since the law demands it; otherwise they say they would like to replace it with some other devotional practices. Therefore it is duty of the priests to make the Sacramental celebrations meaningful and effective.

3.6 On Ministers of the Sacraments

Generally all the participants like priests and love priesthood. But they have a lot of suggestions about the minister of the Sacraments. Their priest should pray before and after the celebration of the Sacrament. They don’t behave in such way that as if they hate their people when they approach them for Sacramental purposes. They wanted the priest should be simple and they must approachable at every time and everywhere. They should respect the dignity of the person. They don’t want to be offended publically. They shall not be angry to them in confessional. They wanted the priest to make good sermons during the mass. They have the feeling that the ministers do not t really understand the situation of the people. They think that the priests live far from the realities. They want their needs to be remembered in the Alter. Ministers must pray for the people and they say they must feel it. They are happy to see them sometimes praying in the church. They like the priest giving guidance and instructions in the church. They also wanted to know about the Sacramental life and contemporary teachings too.

3.7 On Other Religions

90% of the people believe that other religions are false religions and they do not have valid forms of worship. The positive thing is that all of them I interviewed are proud to be a Christian. 10% believe that the people of other religions are also worshipping God in different way and they would be saved if they live a sinless life in their religion. They also recommend that if they could come to Catholic faith it would be easy for them to lead a virtuous life because the church provides everything helpful for their salvation. 25% are intolerable to other religions and their way of cult. 20% has got a tolerable attitude. 55% has got neutral attitude.

4. Synopsis

Generally I was satisfied with the interview. People have differences of opinion and their opinions, as far as I understand, is moulded from their living conditions and particular situations. The answers that I got would have been slightly changed if I could meet the persons from some other area. Anyway the evaluation gave me the conviction that the lay men of the church needed to be guided in their spiritual as well as material life and should be well educated by the priest. For that the priests must be prepared well. They understand and admire people to a great extend. Not only that they thirst for good priests. People are still in the traditional frame work of belief systems. It is not that easy to change their flow of thought; but gradual progress in their attitude could be a possible thing. At least the basic Catechism should be taught to people. Sunday sermons are to be made use of catechetical instructions too – not in an isolated way but as the part of biblical interpretation and faith formation of the people.

5. Conclusion

The mission of Christ is being continued in the church. Church is the Sacrament of Christ. We the ministers of the Christ and their by the church has special duty and obligation to feed the people of God in their pastoral needs. People respect people very much and they need the priests. They seek peace and words of consolation from the ministers of the church. Priest has therefore to understand the needs of the people and must be prepared properly to guide and lead the people of God to their supreme destination.


COOKE, BERNARD, Sacraments Sacramentality (Connecticut, USA: Twenty-Third Publications, 1983).

EVELY, LOUIS, Church and the Sacraments (New Jersey: Dimension Books, 1971).


FARRELL, CHRISTOPHER-THOMAS ARTZ, The Sacraments Today: their Meaning and Celebration (Liguori, USA: Liguori Publications, 1978).

KELLY, W., Sacraments Revisited Darton, London: Longman Ltd., 1998).


MARGERIE, BERTRAND DE, Sacraments and Social Progress (Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1974).

MICK, LAWRENCE, Understanding the Sacraments Today (Minnesota: Liturgical Press, 1987).

RAHNER, KARL, The Church and Sacraments (Montreal: Palm Publishers, 1963).

SCHANZ, JOHN P., Introduction to the Sacraments (New York: Pueblo Publishing Company, 1983).

SEGUNDO, JUAN LUIS, Sacraments Today (New York: Maryknoll, 1971).

TAYLOR, MICHAEL J. (Ed.), Sacraments: Readings in Contemporary Sacramental Theology (New York: Alba House, 1981).

[1] LAWRENCE MICK, Understanding the Sacraments Today (Minnesota: Liturgical Press, 1987)101-103.

[2] CHRISTOPHER FARRELL -THOMAS ARTZ, The Sacraments Today: their Meaning and Celebration (Liguori, USA: Liguori Publications, 1978)17-18.

[3] CHRISTOPHER FARRELL -THOMAS ARTZ, The Sacraments Today: their Meaning and Celebration, 19-24.

[4] JOHN P. SCHANZ, Introduction to the Sacraments (New York: Pueblo Publishing Company, 1983)12.

[5] KARL RAHNER, The Church and Sacraments (Montreal: Palm Publishers, 1963) 42-46.

[6] W. KELLY, Sacraments Revisited Darton, London: Longman Ltd., 1998)12–20.

[7] MICHAEL TAYLOR J.,  (Ed.), Sacraments: Readings in Contemporary Sacramental Theology (New York: Alba House, 1981)24-28.

[8] EVELY, LOUIS, Church and the Sacraments (New Jersey: Dimension Books, 1971)11-17.

[9] JUAN LUIS SEGUNDO, Sacraments Today (New York: Maryknoll, 1971)24-27.

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