Forging a KATANA out of Rusted Iron CHAIN

Watch “Forging a KATANA out of Rusted Iron CHAIN” on YouTube

Future Computers Will Be Radically Different

Future Computers Will Be Radically Different

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Visit https://brilliant.org/Veritasium/ to get started learning STEM for free, and the first 200 people will get 20% off their annual premium subscription. Digital computers have served us well for decades, but the rise of artificial intelligence demands a totally new kind of computer: analog.

Thanks to Mike Henry and everyone at Mythic for the analog computing tour! https://www.mythic-ai.com/
Thanks to Dr. Bernd Ulmann, who created The Analog Thing and taught us how to use it. https://the-analog-thing.org
Moore’s Law was filmed at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, CA.
Welch Labs’ ALVINN video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H0igi…

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References:
Crevier, D. (1993). AI: The Tumultuous History Of The Search For Artificial Intelligence. Basic Books. – https://ve42.co/Crevier1993
Valiant, L. (2013). Probably Approximately Correct. HarperCollins. – https://ve42.co/Valiant2013
Rosenblatt, F. (1958). The Perceptron: A Probabilistic Model for Information Storage and Organization in the Brain. Psychological Review, 65(6), 386-408. – https://ve42.co/Rosenblatt1958
NEW NAVY DEVICE LEARNS BY DOING; Psychologist Shows Embryo of Computer Designed to Read and Grow Wiser (1958). The New York Times, p. 25. – https://ve42.co/NYT1958
Mason, H., Stewart, D., and Gill, B. (1958). Rival. The New Yorker, p. 45. – https://ve42.co/Mason1958
Alvinn driving NavLab footage – https://ve42.co/NavLab
Pomerleau, D. (1989). ALVINN: An Autonomous Land Vehicle In a Neural Network. NeurIPS, (2)1, 305-313. – https://ve42.co/Pomerleau1989
ImageNet website – https://ve42.co/ImageNet
Russakovsky, O., Deng, J. et al. (2015). ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge. – https://ve42.co/ImageNetChallenge
AlexNet Paper: Krizhevsky, A., Sutskever, I., Hinton, G. (2012). ImageNet Classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks. NeurIPS, (25)1, 1097-1105. – https://ve42.co/AlexNet
Karpathy, A. (2014). Blog post: What I learned from competing against a ConvNet on ImageNet. – https://ve42.co/Karpathy2014
Fick, D. (2018). Blog post: Mythic @ Hot Chips 2018. – https://ve42.co/MythicBlog
Jin, Y. & Lee, B. (2019). 2.2 Basic operations of flash memory. Advances in Computers, 114, 1-69. – https://ve42.co/Jin2019
Demler, M. (2018). Mythic Multiplies in a Flash. The Microprocessor Report. – https://ve42.co/Demler2018
Aspinity (2021). Blog post: 5 Myths About AnalogML. – https://ve42.co/Aspinity
Wright, L. et al. (2022). Deep physical neural networks trained with backpropagation. Nature, 601, 49–555. – https://ve42.co/Wright2022
Waldrop, M. M. (2016). The chips are down for Moore’s law. Nature, 530, 144–147. – https://ve42.co/Waldrop2016

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Kelly Snook, TTST, Ross McCawley, Balkrishna Heroor, 65square.com, Chris LaClair, Avi Yashchin, John H. Austin, Jr., OnlineBookClub.org, Dmitry Kuzmichev, Matthew Gonzalez, Eric Sexton, john kiehl, Anton Ragin, Benedikt Heinen, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, MJP, Gnare, Dave Kircher, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Bill Linder, Paul Peijzel, Josh Hibschman, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, jim buckmaster, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Stephen Wilcox, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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Written by Derek Muller, Stephen Welch, and Emily Zhang
Filmed by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang
Animation by Iván Tello, Mike Radjabov, and Stephen Welch
Edited by Derek Muller
Additional video/photos supplied by Getty Images and Pond5
Music from Epidemic Sound
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang

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We’re Building Computers Wrong

We’re Building Computers Wrong

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Visit https://brilliant.org/Veritasium/ to get started learning STEM for free, and the first 200 people will get 20% off their annual premium subscription. Digital computers have served us well for decades, but the rise of artificial intelligence demands a totally new kind of computer: analog.

Thanks to Mike Henry and everyone at Mythic for the analog computing tour! https://www.mythic-ai.com/
Thanks to Dr. Bernd Ulmann, who created The Analog Thing and taught us how to use it. https://the-analog-thing.org
Moore’s Law was filmed at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, CA.
Welch Labs’ ALVINN video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H0igi…

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References:
Crevier, D. (1993). AI: The Tumultuous History Of The Search For Artificial Intelligence. Basic Books. – https://ve42.co/Crevier1993
Valiant, L. (2013). Probably Approximately Correct. HarperCollins. – https://ve42.co/Valiant2013
Rosenblatt, F. (1958). The Perceptron: A Probabilistic Model for Information Storage and Organization in the Brain. Psychological Review, 65(6), 386-408. – https://ve42.co/Rosenblatt1958
NEW NAVY DEVICE LEARNS BY DOING; Psychologist Shows Embryo of Computer Designed to Read and Grow Wiser (1958). The New York Times, p. 25. – https://ve42.co/NYT1958
Mason, H., Stewart, D., and Gill, B. (1958). Rival. The New Yorker, p. 45. – https://ve42.co/Mason1958
Alvinn driving NavLab footage – https://ve42.co/NavLab
Pomerleau, D. (1989). ALVINN: An Autonomous Land Vehicle In a Neural Network. NeurIPS, (2)1, 305-313. – https://ve42.co/Pomerleau1989
ImageNet website – https://ve42.co/ImageNet
Russakovsky, O., Deng, J. et al. (2015). ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge. – https://ve42.co/ImageNetChallenge
AlexNet Paper: Krizhevsky, A., Sutskever, I., Hinton, G. (2012). ImageNet Classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks. NeurIPS, (25)1, 1097-1105. – https://ve42.co/AlexNet
Karpathy, A. (2014). Blog post: What I learned from competing against a ConvNet on ImageNet. – https://ve42.co/Karpathy2014
Fick, D. (2018). Blog post: Mythic @ Hot Chips 2018. – https://ve42.co/MythicBlog
Jin, Y. & Lee, B. (2019). 2.2 Basic operations of flash memory. Advances in Computers, 114, 1-69. – https://ve42.co/Jin2019
Demler, M. (2018). Mythic Multiplies in a Flash. The Microprocessor Report. – https://ve42.co/Demler2018
Aspinity (2021). Blog post: 5 Myths About AnalogML. – https://ve42.co/Aspinity
Wright, L. et al. (2022). Deep physical neural networks trained with backpropagation. Nature, 601, 49–555. – https://ve42.co/Wright2022
Waldrop, M. M. (2016). The chips are down for Moore’s law. Nature, 530, 144–147. – https://ve42.co/Waldrop2016

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Kelly Snook, TTST, Ross McCawley, Balkrishna Heroor, 65square.com, Chris LaClair, Avi Yashchin, John H. Austin, Jr., OnlineBookClub.org, Dmitry Kuzmichev, Matthew Gonzalez, Eric Sexton, john kiehl, Anton Ragin, Benedikt Heinen, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, MJP, Gnare, Dave Kircher, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Bill Linder, Paul Peijzel, Josh Hibschman, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, jim buckmaster, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Stephen Wilcox, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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Written by Derek Muller, Stephen Welch, and Emily Zhang
Filmed by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang
Animation by Iván Tello, Mike Radjabov, and Stephen Welch
Edited by Derek Muller
Additional video/photos supplied by Getty Images and Pond5
Music from Epidemic Sound
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang

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The Most Powerful Computers You’ve Never Heard Of

The Most Powerful Computers You’ve Never Heard Of

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Analog computers were the most powerful computers for thousands of years, relegated to obscurity by the digital revolution. This video is sponsored by Brilliant. The first 200 people to sign up via https://brilliant.org/veritasium get 20% off a yearly subscription.

Thanks to Scott Wiedemann for the lego computer instructions – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5X_Ft…

Antikythera Archive & Animations ©2005-2020 Images First Ltd. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ebB0… “The Antikythera Cosmos” (2021) follows the latest developments from the UCL Antikythera Research Team as they recreate a dazzling display of the ancient Greek Cosmos at the front of the Antikythera Mechanism.

Tides video from NASA – https://climate.nasa.gov/climate_reso…

Ship animation from this painting – https://ve42.co/Agamemnon

Moore’s Law, the op-amp, and the Norden bombsight were filmed at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, CA.

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References:

Freeth, T., Bitsakis, Y., Moussas, X., Seiradakis, J. H., Tselikas, A., Mangou, H., … & Edmunds, M. G. (2006). Decoding the ancient Greek astronomical calculator known as the Antikythera Mechanism. Nature, 444(7119), 587-591. – https://ve42.co/Freeth2006
Freeth, T., & Jones, A. (2012). The cosmos in the Antikythera mechanism. ISAW Papers. – https://ve42.co/Freeth2012
Cartwright, D. E. (2000). Tides: a scientific history. Cambridge University Press. – https://ve42.co/tides
Thomson, W. (2017). Mathematical and physical papers. CUP Archive. – https://ve42.co/Kelvinv6
Parker, B. B. (2007). Tidal analysis and prediction. NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services. – https://ve42.co/Parker2007
Parker, B. (2011). The tide predictions for D-Day. Physics Today, 64(9), 35-40. – https://ve42.co/Parker2011
Small, J. (2013). The Analogue Alternative. Routledge. – https://ve42.co/Small2013
Zorpette, G. (1989). Parkinson’s gun director. IEEE Spectrum, 26(4), 43. – https://ve42.co/Zorpette89
Tremblay, M. (2009). Deconstructing the myth of the Norden Bombsight (Doctoral dissertation). – https://ve42.co/Tremblay
Gladwell, M. (2021). The Bomber Mafia. Little, Brown and Company. – https://ve42.co/Gladwell2021
Mindell, D. A. (2000). Automation’s finest hour: Radar and system integration in World War II. Systems, Experts, and Computers: The Systems Approach in Management and Engineering, World War II and After. Edited by A. C. Hughes and T. P. Hughes, 27-56. – https://ve42.co/Mindell
Haigh, T., Priestley, M., & Rope, C. (2016). ENIAC in Action. The MIT Press. – https://ve42.co/Eniac2016
Soni, J., & Goodman, R. (2017). A mind at play: how Claude Shannon invented the information age. Simon and Schuster. – https://ve42.co/Soni
Haigh, T. & Ceruzzi, P. (2021). A New History of Modern Computing. The MIT Press. – https://ve42.co/ModernComputing
Rid, T. (2016). Rise of the Machines: a Cybernetic History. Highbridge. – https://ve42.co/Rid2016
Ulmann, B. (2013). Analog computing. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag. – https://ve42.co/Ulmann2013

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Dmitry Kuzmichev, Matthew Gonzalez, Baranidharan S, Eric Sexton, john kiehl, Daniel Brockman, Anton Ragin, S S, Benedikt Heinen, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, MJP, Gnare, Dave Kircher, Edward Larsen, Burt Humburg, Blak Byers, Dumky, , Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Bill Linder, Paul Peijzel, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Ludovic Robillard, jim buckmaster, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Stephen Wilcox, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

Written by Derek Muller, Stephen Welch and Emily Zhang
Filmed by Derek Muller, Emily Zhang and Raquel Nuno
Animation by Fabio Albertelli, Jakub Misiek, Mike Radjabov, Iván Tello, Trenton Oliver
Edited by Derek Muller
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Music from Epidemic Sound and Jonny Hyman
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Emily Zhang

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Most People Don’t Know How Bikes Work

Most People Don’t Know How Bikes Work

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Why are bicycles stable? The most common answer is gyroscopic effects, but this is not right. This video was sponsored by Kiwico. Get 50% off your first month of any crate at https://kiwico.com/veritasium50

Huge thanks to Rick Cavallaro for creating this bike on short notice. Thanks to all the friends who participated in the filming. Rick was also responsible for the Blackbird Faster Than The Wind Downwind Cart. https://youtu.be/jyQwgBAaBag

Much of the information presented here on the stability of a riderless bicycle stems from original research at
Delft http://bicycle.tudelft.nl/schwab/Bicy…
and
Cornell http://ruina.tam.cornell.edu/research…

This line of bicycle-balance research was initiated by Jim Papadopoulos: https://www.nature.com/articles/535338a

Great videos on bikes and counter-steering:

MinutePhysics: How Do Bikes Stay Up? https://youtu.be/oZAc5t2lkvo

MinutePhysics: The Counterintuitive Physics of Turning a Bike: https://youtu.be/llRkf1fnNDM

Why Bicycles Do Not Fall – Arend Schwab TED talk: https://youtu.be/2Y4mbT3ozcA

Today I Found Out: We Still Don’t Know How Bicycles Work https://youtu.be/YWsK6rmsKSI

TU Delft – Smart motor in handlebars prevents bicycles from falling over: https://youtu.be/rBOQp2uY_lk

Andy Ruina Explains How Bicycles Balance Themselves: https://youtu.be/NcZCzr9ExKk

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More References:

TU Delft Bicycle Site: http://bicycle.tudelft.nl/schwab/Bicy…

Bicycle stability program: http://ruina.tam.cornell.edu/research…

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Luis Felipe, Anton Ragin, Paul Peijzel, S S, Benedikt Heinen, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Sam Lutfi, MJP, Gnare, Nick DiCandilo, Dave Kircher, Edward Larsen, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson,Ron Neal

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Written by Derek Muller
Filmed by Trenton Oliver, Raquel Nuno and Derek Muller
Edited by Derek Muller
Music from Epidemic Sound and Jonny Hyman
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Emily Zhang

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The Universe is Hostile to Computers

The Universe is Hostile to Computers

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Tiny particles from distant galaxies have caused plane accidents, election interference and game glitches. This video is sponsored by Brilliant. The first 200 people to sign up via https://brilliant.org/veritasium get 20% off a yearly subscription.

This video was inspired by the RadioLab Podcast “Bit Flip” https://ve42.co/BF — they’re brilliant science storytellers.

A Huge thanks to Dr Leif Scheick, Calla Cofield and the JPL Media Relations Team.

Thanks to Col Chris Hadfield. Check out his book: https://chrishadfield.ca/books/

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References:
J. F. Ziegler, “Terrestrial cosmic rays,” in IBM Journal of Research and Development, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 19-39, Jan. 1996, doi: 10.1147/rd.401.0019. — https://ve42.co/Ziegler1996

D. Binder, E. C. Smith and A. B. Holman, “Satellite Anomalies from Galactic Cosmic Rays,” in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 2675-2680, Dec. 1975, doi: 10.1109/TNS.1975.4328188 https://ve42.co/Binder1975

Ziegler, J. F., & Lanford, W. A. (1979). Effect of cosmic rays on computer memories. Science, 206(4420), 776-788 https://ve42.co/Ziegler1979

Drury, L. O. C. (2012). Origin of cosmic rays. Astroparticle Physics, 39, 52-60. https://ve42.co/Drury2012

Hess, V. (2018). On the observations of the penetrating radiation during seven balloon flights. arXiv preprint arXiv:1808.02927. –https://ve42.co/Hess2018

Carlson, P., & De Angelis, A. (2011). Nationalism and internationalism in science: the case of the discovery of cosmic rays. The European Physical Journal H, 35(4), 309-329. — https://ve42.co/Carlson2011

Höeffgen, S. K., Metzger, S., & Steffens, M. (2020). Investigating the effects of cosmic rays on space electronics. Frontiers in Physics, 8, 318. — https://ve42.co/Hoeffgen2020

Edmonds, L. D., Barnes, C. E., & Scheick, L. Z. (2000). An introduction to space radiation effects on microelectronics. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. — https://ve42.co/Edmonds2000

NASA Mars 2020 website covering the specifications of the Perseverance Rover https://ve42.co/RoverBrains

Australian Government Australian Transport Safety Bureau report on QF72 — https://ve42.co/ASTBQantas

Australian Government Australian Transport Safety Bureau summary on QF72 –https://ve42.co/ASTBQantas2

Great Blog post about QF72 — https://ve42.co/DempseyQantas

Michael Barr’s report on the Toyota acceleration issue –https://ve42.co/Barr2015

NASA’s Report on Toyota — https://ve42.co/NASAToyota

T. C. May and M. H. Woods, “A New Physical Mechanism for Soft Errors in Dynamic Memories,” 16th International Reliability Physics Symposium, 1978, pp. 33-40, doi: 10.1109/IRPS.1978.362815. –https://ve42.co/May1978

P. M. O’Neill and G. D. Badhwar, “Single event upsets for Space Shuttle flights of new general purpose computer memory devices,” in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1755-1764, Oct. 1994, doi: 10.1109/23.317386. — https://ve42.co/ONeill1994

Wikipedia about radiation hardening — https://ve42.co/RadHardening

Toward Monitoring Fault-Tolerant Embedded
Systems (Extended Abstract) — https://ve42.co/Goodloe2009

Article about speed run — https://ve42.co/BurttSpeedrun

Article about speed run — https://ve42.co/BountySpeedrun

Article about redundant systems in spaceflight — https://ve42.co/NASAComputers

Article about the PowerPC750 — https://ve42.co/Wener-FlignerNASA

Fuglesang C, Narici L, Picozza P, Sannita WG. Phosphenes in low earth orbit: survey responses from 59 astronauts. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2006 Apr;77(4):449-52. PMID: 16676658. — https://ve42.co/Fuglesang2006

Good article about Cosmic Rays causing flashes — https://ve42.co/AtkinsonEye

Good article about radiation resistance — https://ve42.co/RoverResistance

Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Paul Peijzel, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Sam Lutfi, MJP, Gnare, Nick DiCandilo, Dave Kircher, Edward Larsen, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

Written by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev
Animation by Iván Tello, Mike Radjabov, Fabio Albertelli, Jakub Misiek and Charlie Davies
SFX by Shaun Clifford
Filmed by Derek Muller, Raquel Nuno, and Emily Zhang
Edited by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev
SFX by Shaun Clifford
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Rover Footage From NASA/JPL-Caltech
QF72 footage from the Smithsonian channel https://youtu.be/H3q5S9PCoJA
SM64 footage from https://ve42.co/pannenkoek2012
Music from Epidemic Sound
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Emily Zhang

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I Rented A Helicopter To Settle A Physics Debate

I Rented A Helicopter To Settle A Physics Debate

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The story of a controversial physics question on the qualifying exam for the 2014 US Physics Olympiad team. How does a uniform cable beneath a helicopter hang? Visit https://SimpliSafe.com/veritasium to learn more and to get at least 30% off your SimpliSafe security system! Thanks to SimpliSafe for sponsoring a portion of this video.

Thanks to Scott Smith and the Perris Valley Airport for hosting us. You can follow their social media @skydive_perris and learn more about them at https://skydiveperris.com/
Thanks to Craig Hosking for being our expert helicopter pilot.
Thanks to Professor Paul Stanley for the interview and for writing such an interesting question.

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References:
The Exam — https://ve42.co/AAPT2014Exam
The Solution — https://ve42.co/AAPT2014Solutions

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: S S, Andrew, Benedikt Heinen, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, MJP, Gnare, Dave Kircher, Edward Larsen, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Bill Linder, Paul Peijzel, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Big Badaboom, Ludovic Robillard, jim buckmaster, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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Written by Derek Muller, Emily Zhang, and Petr Lebedev
Filmed by Derek Muller, Trenton Oliver, and Emily Zhang
Edited by Trenton Oliver
Animation by Mike Radjabov
Music from Epidemic Sounds
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang

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The Genius of 3D Printed Rockets

The Genius of 3D Printed Rockets

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3D printed rockets save on up front tooling, enable rapid iteration, decrease part count, and facilitate radically new designs. For your chance to win 2 seats on one of the first Virgin Galactic flights to Space and support a great cause, go to https://www.omaze.com/veritasium

Thanks to Tim Ellis and everyone at Relativity Space for the tour!
https://www.relativityspace.com/
https://youtube.com/c/RelativitySpace

Special thanks to Scott Manley for the interview and advising on aerospace engineering.
Check out his channel: https://www.youtube.com/user/szyzyg

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References:
Benson, T. (2021). Rocket Parts. NASA. — https://ve42.co/RocketParts

Boen, B. (2009). Winter Wonder: Rocket Icicles. NASA. — https://ve42.co/EngineIcicles

Hall, N. (2021). Rocket Thrust Equation. NASA. — https://ve42.co/RocketEqn

Benson, T. (2021). Rocket Thrust. NASA. — https://ve42.co/RocketThrust

Regenerative Cooling — https://ve42.co/RegenCooling

How A Gold Bullet Almost Destroyed A Space Shuttle by Scott Manley — https://ve42.co/ManleyEngine

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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Written by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang
Animation by Mike Radjabov
Filmed by Derek Muller, Raquel Nuno, Trenton Oliver, and Emily Zhang
Edited by Trenton Oliver
SFX by Shaun Clifford
Additional video supplied by Getty Images & Pond5
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang

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Why You Should Want Driverless Cars On Roads Now

Why You Should Want Driverless Cars On Roads Now

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How close are we to having fully autonomous vehicles on the roads? Are they safe? In Chandler, Arizona a fleet of Waymo vehicles are already in operation. Waymo sponsored this video and provided access to their technology and personnel. Check out their safety report here: https://waymo.com/safety/

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References:

Waymo Safety Reports — https://waymo.com/safety/

Driving Statistics — https://ve42.co/DrivingStats

The Real Moral Dilemma of Self-Driving Cars https://ve42.co/SelfDriving

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters:
Alvaro naranjo, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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Animation by Fabio Albertelli and Jakub Misiek
Edited by Trenton Oliver
Audio Mix and SFX by Shaun Clifford
Music by Epidemic Sound https://epidemicsound.com
Additional video supplied by Getty Images and Pond 5
Produced by Derek Muller, Emily Zhang and Petr Lebedev

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