Human Robot Mass Production Process with New 3D Printer Factory in Korea

Watch “Human Robot Mass Production Process with New 3D Printer Factory in Korea” on YouTube

Future Computers Will Be Radically Different

Future Computers Will Be Radically Different

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Visit https://brilliant.org/Veritasium/ to get started learning STEM for free, and the first 200 people will get 20% off their annual premium subscription. Digital computers have served us well for decades, but the rise of artificial intelligence demands a totally new kind of computer: analog.

Thanks to Mike Henry and everyone at Mythic for the analog computing tour! https://www.mythic-ai.com/
Thanks to Dr. Bernd Ulmann, who created The Analog Thing and taught us how to use it. https://the-analog-thing.org
Moore’s Law was filmed at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, CA.
Welch Labs’ ALVINN video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H0igi…

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References:
Crevier, D. (1993). AI: The Tumultuous History Of The Search For Artificial Intelligence. Basic Books. – https://ve42.co/Crevier1993
Valiant, L. (2013). Probably Approximately Correct. HarperCollins. – https://ve42.co/Valiant2013
Rosenblatt, F. (1958). The Perceptron: A Probabilistic Model for Information Storage and Organization in the Brain. Psychological Review, 65(6), 386-408. – https://ve42.co/Rosenblatt1958
NEW NAVY DEVICE LEARNS BY DOING; Psychologist Shows Embryo of Computer Designed to Read and Grow Wiser (1958). The New York Times, p. 25. – https://ve42.co/NYT1958
Mason, H., Stewart, D., and Gill, B. (1958). Rival. The New Yorker, p. 45. – https://ve42.co/Mason1958
Alvinn driving NavLab footage – https://ve42.co/NavLab
Pomerleau, D. (1989). ALVINN: An Autonomous Land Vehicle In a Neural Network. NeurIPS, (2)1, 305-313. – https://ve42.co/Pomerleau1989
ImageNet website – https://ve42.co/ImageNet
Russakovsky, O., Deng, J. et al. (2015). ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge. – https://ve42.co/ImageNetChallenge
AlexNet Paper: Krizhevsky, A., Sutskever, I., Hinton, G. (2012). ImageNet Classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks. NeurIPS, (25)1, 1097-1105. – https://ve42.co/AlexNet
Karpathy, A. (2014). Blog post: What I learned from competing against a ConvNet on ImageNet. – https://ve42.co/Karpathy2014
Fick, D. (2018). Blog post: Mythic @ Hot Chips 2018. – https://ve42.co/MythicBlog
Jin, Y. & Lee, B. (2019). 2.2 Basic operations of flash memory. Advances in Computers, 114, 1-69. – https://ve42.co/Jin2019
Demler, M. (2018). Mythic Multiplies in a Flash. The Microprocessor Report. – https://ve42.co/Demler2018
Aspinity (2021). Blog post: 5 Myths About AnalogML. – https://ve42.co/Aspinity
Wright, L. et al. (2022). Deep physical neural networks trained with backpropagation. Nature, 601, 49–555. – https://ve42.co/Wright2022
Waldrop, M. M. (2016). The chips are down for Moore’s law. Nature, 530, 144–147. – https://ve42.co/Waldrop2016

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Kelly Snook, TTST, Ross McCawley, Balkrishna Heroor, 65square.com, Chris LaClair, Avi Yashchin, John H. Austin, Jr., OnlineBookClub.org, Dmitry Kuzmichev, Matthew Gonzalez, Eric Sexton, john kiehl, Anton Ragin, Benedikt Heinen, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, MJP, Gnare, Dave Kircher, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Bill Linder, Paul Peijzel, Josh Hibschman, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, jim buckmaster, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Stephen Wilcox, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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Written by Derek Muller, Stephen Welch, and Emily Zhang
Filmed by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang
Animation by Iván Tello, Mike Radjabov, and Stephen Welch
Edited by Derek Muller
Additional video/photos supplied by Getty Images and Pond5
Music from Epidemic Sound
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang

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We’re Building Computers Wrong

We’re Building Computers Wrong

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Visit https://brilliant.org/Veritasium/ to get started learning STEM for free, and the first 200 people will get 20% off their annual premium subscription. Digital computers have served us well for decades, but the rise of artificial intelligence demands a totally new kind of computer: analog.

Thanks to Mike Henry and everyone at Mythic for the analog computing tour! https://www.mythic-ai.com/
Thanks to Dr. Bernd Ulmann, who created The Analog Thing and taught us how to use it. https://the-analog-thing.org
Moore’s Law was filmed at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, CA.
Welch Labs’ ALVINN video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H0igi…

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References:
Crevier, D. (1993). AI: The Tumultuous History Of The Search For Artificial Intelligence. Basic Books. – https://ve42.co/Crevier1993
Valiant, L. (2013). Probably Approximately Correct. HarperCollins. – https://ve42.co/Valiant2013
Rosenblatt, F. (1958). The Perceptron: A Probabilistic Model for Information Storage and Organization in the Brain. Psychological Review, 65(6), 386-408. – https://ve42.co/Rosenblatt1958
NEW NAVY DEVICE LEARNS BY DOING; Psychologist Shows Embryo of Computer Designed to Read and Grow Wiser (1958). The New York Times, p. 25. – https://ve42.co/NYT1958
Mason, H., Stewart, D., and Gill, B. (1958). Rival. The New Yorker, p. 45. – https://ve42.co/Mason1958
Alvinn driving NavLab footage – https://ve42.co/NavLab
Pomerleau, D. (1989). ALVINN: An Autonomous Land Vehicle In a Neural Network. NeurIPS, (2)1, 305-313. – https://ve42.co/Pomerleau1989
ImageNet website – https://ve42.co/ImageNet
Russakovsky, O., Deng, J. et al. (2015). ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge. – https://ve42.co/ImageNetChallenge
AlexNet Paper: Krizhevsky, A., Sutskever, I., Hinton, G. (2012). ImageNet Classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks. NeurIPS, (25)1, 1097-1105. – https://ve42.co/AlexNet
Karpathy, A. (2014). Blog post: What I learned from competing against a ConvNet on ImageNet. – https://ve42.co/Karpathy2014
Fick, D. (2018). Blog post: Mythic @ Hot Chips 2018. – https://ve42.co/MythicBlog
Jin, Y. & Lee, B. (2019). 2.2 Basic operations of flash memory. Advances in Computers, 114, 1-69. – https://ve42.co/Jin2019
Demler, M. (2018). Mythic Multiplies in a Flash. The Microprocessor Report. – https://ve42.co/Demler2018
Aspinity (2021). Blog post: 5 Myths About AnalogML. – https://ve42.co/Aspinity
Wright, L. et al. (2022). Deep physical neural networks trained with backpropagation. Nature, 601, 49–555. – https://ve42.co/Wright2022
Waldrop, M. M. (2016). The chips are down for Moore’s law. Nature, 530, 144–147. – https://ve42.co/Waldrop2016

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Kelly Snook, TTST, Ross McCawley, Balkrishna Heroor, 65square.com, Chris LaClair, Avi Yashchin, John H. Austin, Jr., OnlineBookClub.org, Dmitry Kuzmichev, Matthew Gonzalez, Eric Sexton, john kiehl, Anton Ragin, Benedikt Heinen, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, MJP, Gnare, Dave Kircher, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Bill Linder, Paul Peijzel, Josh Hibschman, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, jim buckmaster, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Stephen Wilcox, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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Written by Derek Muller, Stephen Welch, and Emily Zhang
Filmed by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang
Animation by Iván Tello, Mike Radjabov, and Stephen Welch
Edited by Derek Muller
Additional video/photos supplied by Getty Images and Pond5
Music from Epidemic Sound
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang

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Most People Don’t Know How Bikes Work

Most People Don’t Know How Bikes Work

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Why are bicycles stable? The most common answer is gyroscopic effects, but this is not right. This video was sponsored by Kiwico. Get 50% off your first month of any crate at https://kiwico.com/veritasium50

Huge thanks to Rick Cavallaro for creating this bike on short notice. Thanks to all the friends who participated in the filming. Rick was also responsible for the Blackbird Faster Than The Wind Downwind Cart. https://youtu.be/jyQwgBAaBag

Much of the information presented here on the stability of a riderless bicycle stems from original research at
Delft http://bicycle.tudelft.nl/schwab/Bicy…
and
Cornell http://ruina.tam.cornell.edu/research…

This line of bicycle-balance research was initiated by Jim Papadopoulos: https://www.nature.com/articles/535338a

Great videos on bikes and counter-steering:

MinutePhysics: How Do Bikes Stay Up? https://youtu.be/oZAc5t2lkvo

MinutePhysics: The Counterintuitive Physics of Turning a Bike: https://youtu.be/llRkf1fnNDM

Why Bicycles Do Not Fall – Arend Schwab TED talk: https://youtu.be/2Y4mbT3ozcA

Today I Found Out: We Still Don’t Know How Bicycles Work https://youtu.be/YWsK6rmsKSI

TU Delft – Smart motor in handlebars prevents bicycles from falling over: https://youtu.be/rBOQp2uY_lk

Andy Ruina Explains How Bicycles Balance Themselves: https://youtu.be/NcZCzr9ExKk

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More References:

TU Delft Bicycle Site: http://bicycle.tudelft.nl/schwab/Bicy…

Bicycle stability program: http://ruina.tam.cornell.edu/research…

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Luis Felipe, Anton Ragin, Paul Peijzel, S S, Benedikt Heinen, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Sam Lutfi, MJP, Gnare, Nick DiCandilo, Dave Kircher, Edward Larsen, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson,Ron Neal

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Written by Derek Muller
Filmed by Trenton Oliver, Raquel Nuno and Derek Muller
Edited by Derek Muller
Music from Epidemic Sound and Jonny Hyman
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Emily Zhang

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The Rocket & String Paradox

The Rocket & String Paradox

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The first 200 people to go to http://brilliant.org/minutephysics get 20% off a premium subscription to Brilliant.

This video is about Bell’s Spaceship Paradox of Special Relativity, wherein a pair of rockets (or spacecraft) connected by a weak thread accelerate with uniform acceleration, maintaining the same separation, and the question is: does the thread break? And if so, why?

REFERENCES
Interactive Spacetime Globe by Alexander Wu:
https://alexonscience.com/projects/sp…


Read an overview on Wikipedia:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell%27…

 

John Baez on Bell’s Spaceship Paradox, Rindler Acceleration, etc
https://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physic…


Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics

Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/

MinutePhysics is on twitter – @minutephysics
And facebook – http://facebook.com/minutephysics

Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics — all in a minute!

Created by Henry Reich

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The Universe is Hostile to Computers

The Universe is Hostile to Computers

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Tiny particles from distant galaxies have caused plane accidents, election interference and game glitches. This video is sponsored by Brilliant. The first 200 people to sign up via https://brilliant.org/veritasium get 20% off a yearly subscription.

This video was inspired by the RadioLab Podcast “Bit Flip” https://ve42.co/BF — they’re brilliant science storytellers.

A Huge thanks to Dr Leif Scheick, Calla Cofield and the JPL Media Relations Team.

Thanks to Col Chris Hadfield. Check out his book: https://chrishadfield.ca/books/

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References:
J. F. Ziegler, “Terrestrial cosmic rays,” in IBM Journal of Research and Development, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 19-39, Jan. 1996, doi: 10.1147/rd.401.0019. — https://ve42.co/Ziegler1996

D. Binder, E. C. Smith and A. B. Holman, “Satellite Anomalies from Galactic Cosmic Rays,” in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 2675-2680, Dec. 1975, doi: 10.1109/TNS.1975.4328188 https://ve42.co/Binder1975

Ziegler, J. F., & Lanford, W. A. (1979). Effect of cosmic rays on computer memories. Science, 206(4420), 776-788 https://ve42.co/Ziegler1979

Drury, L. O. C. (2012). Origin of cosmic rays. Astroparticle Physics, 39, 52-60. https://ve42.co/Drury2012

Hess, V. (2018). On the observations of the penetrating radiation during seven balloon flights. arXiv preprint arXiv:1808.02927. –https://ve42.co/Hess2018

Carlson, P., & De Angelis, A. (2011). Nationalism and internationalism in science: the case of the discovery of cosmic rays. The European Physical Journal H, 35(4), 309-329. — https://ve42.co/Carlson2011

Höeffgen, S. K., Metzger, S., & Steffens, M. (2020). Investigating the effects of cosmic rays on space electronics. Frontiers in Physics, 8, 318. — https://ve42.co/Hoeffgen2020

Edmonds, L. D., Barnes, C. E., & Scheick, L. Z. (2000). An introduction to space radiation effects on microelectronics. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. — https://ve42.co/Edmonds2000

NASA Mars 2020 website covering the specifications of the Perseverance Rover https://ve42.co/RoverBrains

Australian Government Australian Transport Safety Bureau report on QF72 — https://ve42.co/ASTBQantas

Australian Government Australian Transport Safety Bureau summary on QF72 –https://ve42.co/ASTBQantas2

Great Blog post about QF72 — https://ve42.co/DempseyQantas

Michael Barr’s report on the Toyota acceleration issue –https://ve42.co/Barr2015

NASA’s Report on Toyota — https://ve42.co/NASAToyota

T. C. May and M. H. Woods, “A New Physical Mechanism for Soft Errors in Dynamic Memories,” 16th International Reliability Physics Symposium, 1978, pp. 33-40, doi: 10.1109/IRPS.1978.362815. –https://ve42.co/May1978

P. M. O’Neill and G. D. Badhwar, “Single event upsets for Space Shuttle flights of new general purpose computer memory devices,” in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1755-1764, Oct. 1994, doi: 10.1109/23.317386. — https://ve42.co/ONeill1994

Wikipedia about radiation hardening — https://ve42.co/RadHardening

Toward Monitoring Fault-Tolerant Embedded
Systems (Extended Abstract) — https://ve42.co/Goodloe2009

Article about speed run — https://ve42.co/BurttSpeedrun

Article about speed run — https://ve42.co/BountySpeedrun

Article about redundant systems in spaceflight — https://ve42.co/NASAComputers

Article about the PowerPC750 — https://ve42.co/Wener-FlignerNASA

Fuglesang C, Narici L, Picozza P, Sannita WG. Phosphenes in low earth orbit: survey responses from 59 astronauts. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2006 Apr;77(4):449-52. PMID: 16676658. — https://ve42.co/Fuglesang2006

Good article about Cosmic Rays causing flashes — https://ve42.co/AtkinsonEye

Good article about radiation resistance — https://ve42.co/RoverResistance

Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Paul Peijzel, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Sam Lutfi, MJP, Gnare, Nick DiCandilo, Dave Kircher, Edward Larsen, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

Written by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev
Animation by Iván Tello, Mike Radjabov, Fabio Albertelli, Jakub Misiek and Charlie Davies
SFX by Shaun Clifford
Filmed by Derek Muller, Raquel Nuno, and Emily Zhang
Edited by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev
SFX by Shaun Clifford
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Rover Footage From NASA/JPL-Caltech
QF72 footage from the Smithsonian channel https://youtu.be/H3q5S9PCoJA
SM64 footage from https://ve42.co/pannenkoek2012
Music from Epidemic Sound
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Emily Zhang

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Scorpions Are Fluorescent?!

Scorpions Are Fluorescent?!

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Under UV light, almost all species of scorpions glow a bright green color, but why? Thanks to Capital One Shopping for sponsoring a portion of this video! Avoid Paying Full Price. Get Capital One Shopping for free using this link: https://capitaloneshopping.com/verita…

A huge thanks to Prof. Carl Kloock for the interview and taking us scorpion hunting at the Panorama Vista Preserve. https://panoramavista.org/

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References:
Zwicky, K. T. (1968). A light response in the tail of Urodacus, a scorpion. Life Sciences, 7(6), 257-262. –https://ve42.co/Zwicky1968

Kloock, C. T. (2005). Aerial insects avoid fluorescing scorpions. Euscorpius, 2005(21), 1-7. — https://ve42.co/Kloock2005

Gaffin, D. D., Bumm, L. A., Taylor, M. S., Popokina, N. V., & Mann, S. (2012). Scorpion fluorescence and reaction to light. Animal Behaviour, 83(2), 429-436. — https://ve42.co/Gaffin2012

Kloock, C. T., Kubli, A., & Reynolds, R. (2010). Ultraviolet light detection: a function of scorpion fluorescence. The Journal of Arachnology, 38(3), 441-445. — https://ve42.co/Kloock2012

Kloock, C. T. (2009). Reducing scorpion fluorescence via prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light. The Journal of Arachnology, 37(3), 368-370. — https://ve42.co/Kloock2009

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Written by Derek Muller, Emily Zhang, Petr Lebedev
Animation by Iván Tello
Filmed by Derek Muller and Emily Zhang
Edited by Brian Kim
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Music from Epidemic Sound https://epidemicsound.com
And “Sneaky Snitch” by Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)
Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/b…
Produced by Derek Muller, Emily Zhang and Petr Lebedev

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How Hidden Technology Transformed Bowling

How Hidden Technology Transformed Bowling

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Bowling has been reinvented many times over the past seven thousand years but especially in the last 30. This is the fascinating physics of balls, oil, lane and pins. A portion of this video was sponsored by Salesforce. Go to https://salesforce.com/veritasium to learn more.

Huge thanks to Steve Kloempken and all of Storm Bowling for letting us visit and get a glimpse into the crazy world of bowling.
Huge thanks to legends Chris Barnes and Pete Weber for taking the time to bowl with us.
Huge thanks to Creative Electron for their help with getting the bowling balls X-rayed. Check out their work here: https://creativeelectron.com/
Thanks to Ron Hatfield and James Freeman for their help with research. Check out their great book, Bowling Beyond the Basics: https://ve42.co/HatfieldFreeman
Thanks to the United States Bowling Congress (USBC) and Professional Bowlers Association (PBA) for their help with accessing archival data and footage.
Special thanks to Rod Cross for physics consultation.
Thanks to Bill Guszczo for giving us the idea to make this video in the first place.

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References:
Freeman, James, and Ron Hatfield. Bowling beyond the Basics: What’s Really Happening on the Lanes, and What You Can Do about It. BowlSmart, 2018. — https://ve42.co/HatfieldFreeman
N. Stremmel, P. Ridenour and S. Sterbenz. “Identifying the Critical Factors That Contribute to Bowling Ball Motion on a Bowling Lane.” United States Bowling Congress, 2008. — https://ve42.co/BallMotionASQ
USBC Equipment Specifications and Certification Team. “Ball Motion Study: Phase I and II Final Report.” United States Bowling Congress, 2008. — https://ve42.co/USBCBallMotion
Brettingen, Patrick, and Nicki Mours. “USBC static weight limits remain relevant.” United States Bowling Congress, 2011. — https://ve42.co/USBCStaticWeight
Article on lane oil origins — https://ve42.co/OilOrigins
Luna, Richard. “Bruce Pluckhahn says there’s a little bit of bowling…” United Press International Archives, 1984. — https://ve42.co/BowlingHistory
Johnson, Brody D. “The Physics of Bowling: How good bowlers stay off the straight and narrow.” St. Louis University. — https://ve42.co/JohnsonPhysicsPpt
Talamo, Jim. “The Physics of Bowling Balls.” — https://ve42.co/TalamoPhysicsPpt
Thompson, Ted. “Breakdown and Carrydown – Then and Now.” Kegel. 2012. — https://ve42.co/ThompsonKegel
Frohlich, Cliff. “What Makes Bowling Balls Hook?” American Journal of Physics, vol. 72, no. 9, 2004, pp. 1170–1177., https://doi.org/10.1119/1.1767099. — https://ve42.co/FrohlichHook
Article on bowling’s ranking in participatory sports — https://ve42.co/BowlingRank
Speranza, Dan, and Dave Nestor. “Initial Oil Absorption Results.” United States Bowling Congress, 2016. — https://ve42.co/USBCOilAbsorption
D. Benner, N. Mours, and P. Ridenour. “Pin Carry Study: Bowl Expo 2009.” United States Bowling Congress, 2009. — https://ve42.co/USBCPinCarry
Hopkins, D. C., and J. D. Patterson. “Bowling Frames: Paths of a Bowling Ball.” American Journal of Physics, vol. 45, no. 3, 1977, pp. 263–266., https://doi.org/10.1119/1.11005. — https://ve42.co/HopkinsPath
Normani, Franco. “The Physics of Bowling.” Real World Physics Problems. — https://ve42.co/NormaniPhysics
Horaczek, Stan. “The insides of pro bowling balls will make your head spin.” Popular Science, 2020. — https://ve42.co/HoraczekSpin
House shot oil pattern — https://ve42.co/HouseOil. Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 4.0.

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Andrew, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, MJP, Gnare, Nick DiCandilo, Dave Kircher, Edward Larsen, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Bill Linder, Paul Peijzel, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Big Badaboom, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

Written by Derek Muller and Emily Zhang
Animations by Mike Radjabov and Iván Tello
Filmed by Derek Muller, Trenton Oliver, and Emily Zhang
Edited by Trenton Oliver
SFX by Shaun Clifford
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Music from Epidemic Sounds
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang

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How 1 Person Can Expose The Identities of 1000

How 1 Person Can Expose The Identities of 1000

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Your genetic code is probably already in a database, without you ever giving a sample or permission. This video is sponsored by Brilliant. The first 200 people to sign up via https://brilliant.org/veritasium get 20% off a yearly subscription.

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A huge thanks to Paul Holes, Billy Jensen, Brett Williams, Dr Connie Bormans and Dr Doc Edge for being part of this video. Thanks to Verogen and Family Tree DNA for giving me access to film.

Thanks to Sonya Pemberton, Joe Hanson, Raquel Nuno, CGP Grey, and numerous Patreon supporters for helpful feedback on an earlier version of this video.

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References:
Phillips, C. (2018). The Golden State Killer investigation and the nascent field of forensic genealogy. Forensic Science International: Genetics, 36, 186-188. — https://ve42.co/Phillips2018

Guerrini, C. J., Robinson, J. O., Petersen, D., & McGuire, A. L. (2018). Should police have access to genetic genealogy databases? Capturing the Golden State Killer and other criminals using a controversial new forensic technique. PLoS biology, 16(10), e2006906. — https://ve42.co/Guerrini

Ram, N., Guerrini, C. J., & McGuire, A. L. (2018). Genealogy databases and the future of criminal investigation. Science, 360(6393), 1078-1079. — https://ve42.co/Ram2019

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Andrew, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, MJP, Gnare, Nick DiCandilo, Dave Kircher, Edward Larsen, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Bill Linder, Paul Peijzel, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Big Badaboom, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal


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Written by Derek Muller
Animation by Iván Tello and Another Angle 3D Visuals (www.anotherangle.ee)
SFX by Shaun Clifford
Filmed by Derek Muller, Raquel Nuno, Shirley Dutoit, and Emily Zhang
Edited by Derek Muller
Produced by Derek Muller and Casey Rentz
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Music from Epidemic Sound https://epidemicsound.com

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The problem so hard we had to invent new numbers

The problem so hard we had to invent new numbers

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A general solution to the cubic equation was long considered impossible, until we gave up the requirement that math reflect reality. This video is sponsored by Brilliant. The first 200 people to sign up via https://brilliant.org/veritasium get 20% off a yearly subscription.

Thanks to Dr Amir Alexander, Dr Alexander Kontorovich, Dr Chris Ferrie, and Dr Adam Becker for the helpful advice and feedback on the earlier versions of the script.

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References:
Some great videos about the cubic:

500 years of not teaching the cubic formula. — https://youtu.be/N-KXStupwsc

Imaginary Numbers are Real — https://youtu.be/T647CGsuOVU

Dunham, W. (1990). Journey through genius: The great theorems of mathematics. New York. — https://ve42.co/Dunham90

Toscano, F. (2020). The Secret Formula. Princeton University Press. — https://ve42.co/Toscano2020

Bochner, S. (1963). The significance of some basic mathematical conceptions for physics. Isis, 54(2), 179-205. — https://ve42.co/Bochner63

Muroi, K. (2019). Cubic equations of Babylonian mathematics. arXiv preprint arXiv:1905.08034. — https://ve42.co/Murio21

Branson, W. Solving the cubic with Cardano, — https://ve42.co/Branson2014

Rothman, T. (2013). Cardano v Tartaglia: The Great Feud Goes Supernatural. arXiv preprint arXiv:1308.2181. — https://ve42.co/Rothman

Vali Siadat, M., & Tholen, A. (2021). Omar Khayyam: Geometric Algebra and Cubic Equations. Math Horizons, 28(1), 12-15. — https://ve42.co/Siadat21

Merino, O. (2006). A short history of complex numbers. University of Rhode Island. — https://ve42.co/Merino2006

Cardano, G (1545), Ars magna or The Rules of Algebra, Dover (published 1993), ISBN 0-486-67811-3

Bombelli, R (1579) L’Algebra https://ve42.co/Bombelli

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Luis Felipe, Anton Ragin, Paul Peijzel, S S, Benedikt Heinen, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Sam Lutfi, MJP, Gnare, Nick DiCandilo, Dave Kircher, Edward Larsen, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson,Ron Neal

Written by Derek Muller, Alex Kontorovich, Stephen Welch and Petr Lebedev
Animation by Fabio Albertelli, Jakub Misiek, Iván Tello and Jesús Rascón
Mathematical animations done with Manim — thanks Grant Sanderson and the Manim community!
SFX by Shaun Clifford
Filmed by Derek Muller and Emily Zhang
Edited by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Music from Epidemic Sound
Additional Music By Jonny Hyman
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Emily Zhang

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I Rented A Helicopter To Settle A Physics Debate

I Rented A Helicopter To Settle A Physics Debate

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The story of a controversial physics question on the qualifying exam for the 2014 US Physics Olympiad team. How does a uniform cable beneath a helicopter hang? Visit https://SimpliSafe.com/veritasium to learn more and to get at least 30% off your SimpliSafe security system! Thanks to SimpliSafe for sponsoring a portion of this video.

Thanks to Scott Smith and the Perris Valley Airport for hosting us. You can follow their social media @skydive_perris and learn more about them at https://skydiveperris.com/
Thanks to Craig Hosking for being our expert helicopter pilot.
Thanks to Professor Paul Stanley for the interview and for writing such an interesting question.

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References:
The Exam — https://ve42.co/AAPT2014Exam
The Solution — https://ve42.co/AAPT2014Solutions

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: S S, Andrew, Benedikt Heinen, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, MJP, Gnare, Dave Kircher, Edward Larsen, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Bill Linder, Paul Peijzel, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Big Badaboom, Ludovic Robillard, jim buckmaster, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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Written by Derek Muller, Emily Zhang, and Petr Lebedev
Filmed by Derek Muller, Trenton Oliver, and Emily Zhang
Edited by Trenton Oliver
Animation by Mike Radjabov
Music from Epidemic Sounds
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang

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This Robot Walks, Flies, Skateboards, Slacklines

This Robot Walks, Flies, Skateboards, Slacklines

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This is a #robot that walks, flies, #skateboards, #slacklines, and might do much more one day. A portion of this video was sponsored by Bluehost. Start building a website with Bluehost today. Use my link to receive more than 65% off: https://bluehost.com/track/veritasium #Bluehost #BHcreator

Thanks to Prof. Soon-Jo Chung and everyone at the Aerospace Robotics and Control Lab at Caltech for the tour!
https://aerospacerobotics.caltech.edu/

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References:
Kim, K., Spieler, P., Lupu, S., Ramezani, A., Chung, S. (2021). A bipedal walking robot that can fly, slackline, and skateboard. Science Robotics. — https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/s…

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: S S, Andrew, Benedikt Heinen, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, MJP, Gnare, Dave Kircher, Edward Larsen, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Bill Linder, Paul Peijzel, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Big Badaboom, Ludovic Robillard, jim buckmaster, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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Written by Derek Muller
Filmed by Derek Muller, Trenton Oliver, and Emily Zhang
Edited by Trenton Oliver
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang

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Nothing is Impossible to Women

Nothing is Impossible to Women